theory of personality development

Elaborating The Theories of Personality Development

Personality development is defined as a process of developing and enhancing an individual’s personality. Personality development helps an individual to gain confidence and higher self-esteem. Personality development is believed to have a positive impact on communication skills and the way we see the world. This article by an academic affiliated with an academic help firm is a brief description of personality development theories.

Defining Personality Development

Experts have defined personality development as the development of the organized pattern of behaviours and attitudes that makes a person distinctive. Personality development occurs through the ongoing interaction of temperament, character, and environment.

Personality makes a person unique. It is a trait that is recognizable soon after birth. A child’s personality has several components, including temperament, environment, and character. Temperament is the set of genetically determined traits that determine the child’s approach to the world and how the child learns about the world. There are no genes that specify personality traits, but some genes can play a crucial role in the growth of the nervous system, which in turn controls behaviour. The environment also influences the development of an individual’s personality and helps a person adjust to society following other factors.

theory of personality development 2Many factors rank high in affecting personality development, but experts agree that high-quality parenting plays a critical role in the development of a child’s personality.  When parents understand how their child responds to certain situations, they can anticipate issues that might cause a problem for their child. They can better prepare their child for such situations. In some cases, they may strive to avoid potentially difficult situations altogether. Parents who know how to adapt their parenting approach to the particular temperament of their child can best provide effective guidance and ensure the successful development of their child’s personality.

Theories of Personality Development?

The study and theories of personality development are considered a study of individual differences in behaviour. They focus on how individuals behave differently from one another in various situations. Developmental personality psychologists are interested in seeing how individuals develop their unique patterns and how they respond to the environment based on genetic endowments and social histories.

The development of personality is supported and often explained by theories of personality that strive to study it in-depth and come up with answers to the questions regarding what makes it work.

Psychoanalytic Theory

The Psychoanalytic Theory of personality was developed by Sigmund Freud, the most popular psychologist of his time. This theory consists of three main ideas that make up personality, the id, the ego, and the superego.

According to Freud, these three traits control their sections of the psyche. He further explains that human personality is developed by the three traits that make up the Psychoanalytic theory conflicting.

Trait Theory of Personality

The Trait Theory of personality is one of the main theories that have become significant in the study of personality. According to this theory, traits such as patterns of behaviour thought, or emotion makes up personality. Experts believe traits play a significant role in shaping personality and making an individual what he or she becomes.

Social Cognitive Theory

The social cognitive theory of personality views personality development in terms of reciprocal interactionism. It explains that a perspective that considers the relationship of person-society as an interactive system defines and moulds personal development. Personal interaction with other individuals, society, and nature creates experiences in which self-identification is organized about the social environment.

This theory further explains that personality traits are a function of complex cognitive strategies that can be used to effectively maneuver through social situations. Individuals can learn to behave in certain situations and societies depending on what they have perceived about it.

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Evolutionary Theory Humanistic Theory

The evolutionary theory of personality development is primarily based on the evolutionary process of natural selection. From an evolutionary perspective, evolution resulted in variations in the human mind. Natural process redefines these variations based on their benefits to humankind. Due to human complexity, many opposing personality traits help in developing culture and achieving better efficiency.

Lifespan Theory

Theories of personality include Freud’s tripartite theory and post-Freudian theory and indicate that most personality development occurs in childhood, stabilizing by the end of adolescence. Current lifespan perspectives that integrate theory and empirical findings dominate the research literature.  Studies have revealed that the most active period of personality development appears to be between the ages of 20-40.  Even though personality grows increasingly consistent with age and typically plateaus near age 50, personality never reaches a period of total stability and continues to evolve.

Humanistic Theory

Humanistic psychology focuses on individual choices as voluntary actions that play a key role in personal development. Individual personality traits that are essential to the integrated self are the only parts that make up the whole of observable human experiences. Personality development is articulated in terms of purposeful action geared towards experiencing mastery of free choice. Personality development is subjected to shifts in personal meaning and individual goals of achieving an ideal self.

Many theories outline the different and interactional processes of personality development. Most of these theories can be grouped into two categories; those that emphasize specific developmental environments in shaping an individual’s personality and those that emphasize the individual’s biology.

Any theory that emphasizes either the environmental or biological factors does not completely do justice as no one factor is essential. Both these factors, when combined, play a crucial role in understanding personality development better.  Knowing how individuals are likely to react in different situations allows the experts to use their strengths, minimize their weaknesses, and put them in positions where they are programmed to succeed.

The developmental study of individual personality differences provides a rich source of data for researchers and helps them understand and predict behaviour.  Without knowing about theories or personality development, it can become very tough for experts to analyze or explain how and why people behave or develop differently under seemingly similar conditions.  Understanding the differences and the development of these differences is fundamental not only to psychologists’ understanding of behaviour but to everyone else living in the society and helps in better survival.